Vertebrates are an extensive and very diverse group of animals, among which we can find birds, amphibians, Mammals, fish and Reptiles. As a characteristic of the group, and as its name indicates, all of them have a spine or backbone through which part of their nervous system passes. This characteristic of the Vertebrates has allowed them to adapt very efficiently to different environments (air, land and water), but also within these environments we can find Vertebrates that live in inhospitable situations, such as temperatures below zero and great depths, to mention a few examples.

Another characteristic of Vertebrates is that they are provided with a skull that protects the brain, and they have a skeleton either cartilaginous or osseous. Currently there are approximately 62,000 different species of Vertebrates described.